Jinnah’s Pakistan: Revisiting the Pakistan Movement

Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three.

Jinnah of Pakistan
Stanley Wolpert

Muhammad Ali Jinnah is, by far, Pakistan’s most revered individual. And rightfully so as he was the founder of the country. Jinnah created a homeland for the Muslims of India to flourish free of fear from oppression and domination.

Unfortunately, as with many significant historical figures, there are grave misunderstandings of Jinnah’s political strategy and principles. Many wrongfully conclude that he was a staunch separatist and the sole architect of the Partition of India. An event that displaced over 14 million refugees with between 200,000 to 2 million killed in the ensuing communal violence[1]. Likewise, many also conflate the idea of Pakistan with a rejection of India and Indianness. However, these could not be farther from the truth.

In this series of short essays, I aim to bring to light the true intentions of Pakistan’s lead forerunner and why the Pakistan of 1947 was not the Pakistan that Muhammed Ali Jinnah envisioned.


[1] Talbot, I. and Singh, G., 2009. The Partition Of India. Cambridge University Press.


Minto-Morley Reforms – 1909

The reforms allowed Muslims to get into government and rock the boat without fear of being tossed overboard. However, not everyone was happy.

Lucknow Pact – 1916

The Lucknow Pact serves as an example of Jinnah’s adeptness as a political tactician in the cause for an Independent India.