Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three.Jinnah of Pakistan
Muhammad Ali Jinnah is, by far, Pakistan’s most revered individual. And rightfully so, as he was the founder of the country. Jinnah created a homeland for the Muslims of India to flourish, free from fear of oppression and domination.
Unfortunately, as with many significant historical figures, there are grave misunderstandings of Jinnah’s political strategy and principles. Many wrongfully conclude that he was a staunch separatist and the sole architect of the Partition of India. An event that displaced over 14 million refugees, with between 200,000 to 2 million killed in the ensuing communal violence. Likewise, many also conflate the idea of Pakistan with a rejection of India and Indianness. However, these could not be farther from the truth.
In this series of short essays, I aim to bring to light the true intentions of Pakistan’s lead forerunner and why the Pakistan of 1947 was not the Pakistan that Muhammed Ali Jinnah envisioned.
 Talbot, I. and Singh, G., 2009. The Partition Of India. Cambridge University Press.
Founding of the All-India Muslim League – 1906
“[Jinnah] has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu–Muslim Unity”
Minto-Morley Reforms – 1909
The reforms allowed Muslims to get into government and rock the boat without fear of being tossed overboard. However, not everyone was happy.
Partition of Bengal – 1905-1911
The Partition of Bengal is a clear example of how what is in the best interests of one community can be at odds with the best interests of another.
Lucknow Pact – 1916
The Lucknow Pact serves as an example of Jinnah’s adeptness as a political tactician in the cause for an Independent India.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Rowlatt Act, and Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms – 1919
1919 represented a watershed moment in the Indian Independence Movement.
Khilafat Movement and Non-cooperation Movement – 1919-1924
By appealing to both Muslims and Hindus’ religious sentiments, Gandhi was able to rile up the Indian masses in opposition to British rule. So how did Jinnah – “the best ambassador of Hindu–Muslim Unity” – react to all this?
Indian National Pact and Bengal Pact – 1923
Multiple attempts were made at snatching back what was lost. In this essay, we will look at the first of those attempts.